The Rock Temple (Rangiri Dambulla Rajamaha Viharaya)and The Golden Temple(Rangiri Dambulla Uyanwatta Rajamaha Viharaya) are interconnected temples with single administration. The history of Rock Temple goes back to the first century B.C., commenced by the King Vattagamini Abhaya and thereafter kings, Maha Parakramabahu, Nissankamalala, Keerthi Sri Rajasinghe and five cave temples, particularly named, Devaraja Viharaya, Maharaja Viharaya, Maha Alut Viharaya. Paschima Viharaya and Devena Alut Viaharaya respectively.
Within these five caves is housed a collection of 157 valuable images of the Buddha and Bodhisatta etc. Inside the caves the rock surfaces, ceiling and side walls are covered with paintings executed with indigenous traditional colour schemes to an extent of about 22,000 square feet. The inscription in the premises records that the temple had been named "Rangiri Dambulla" when the images were painted in gold by King Nissankamalala of the Polonnaruwa regime. The temple with its historical, archeological and artistic significances had in the year 1991, been declared one of the world heritages sites by the UNESCO.
The administration and the guardianship are under the Most Venerable Inamaluwe Sri Sumangala Maha Nayaka thera of the Rangiri Dambulla Rajamaha Viharaya Chapter. Activities are performed preserving the antiqueness of the sacred temple. Ancient rituals and practises and functions have been systemized and the Temple Land Administration has been reorganized. Metalling and consolidation of the internal and external floor areas of the temple by the Central Cultural Fund; provision of copper sheets to temple roof; arresting leaks on the rock surface to rid damages to the paintings during rain by the Temple Fund; conservation of the images and paintings by the Department of Archeology; widening and improvements to the temple access up to the entrance ; supplying drinking water to the incoming pilgrims, provision of guard fence to the front elevation of the temple, establishment of the Security Service, complete rehabilitation of the interior, exterior and temple access electrical system have been implemented pertaining to the uplift of the temple by the Temple Fund and several such have been programmed.